SEPTEMBER-2018

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SEPTEMBER 2018/ Vol.29.0/ Issue-I 

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CATEGORY : Research Topic on Biological Science [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
 1 TITLE NAME: Determination of Atmospheric Particulate Matter Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Al-Diwaniyah City, Iraq.
Author’s Name : Mohammed Khadom Al-Kasser1   Foad Manher Alkam2
Article Type : ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE 
Country from : IRAQ
Date of Publication:  05-10-2018
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 29.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-I/Page – 01-04 [ SEPTEMBER-2018 EDITION ]
Article Code : BGS-V29-I1-C1-SEP2018 
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download PDF : Full article
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Abstract The current study was conducted to determine Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmospheric total suspended particles (TSP) in Al- Diwaniyah city southern of Iraq. click here
 To achieve this, seven sites were identified in different location within the city. The results showed that the annual mean of PAHs concentrations ranged between non-detectable (ND) for Phen and BaA, and 2621.62  ng.m-3 for Chry. The findings showed that the annual mean of ∑11 PAHs reach 5031.44 ng.m-3. The results also showed that the human activities was the main sources of PAHs atmospheric pollution especially fossils fuel combustion for energy generation an transportation.KEYWORD: Total suspended particles, PAHs, fossils fuel combustion, carcinogenic.

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Agricultural Science [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
 2 TITLE NAME : Assessment and evaluation of the potential of fungi agents against Parthenium ( Parthenium hysterophorus L.) Weed in relation to chemical herbicide
Author’s Name : Dr. Samuel Sahile1Nigest Asmelash2
Article Type : ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE 
Country from : Ethiopia
Date of Publication:  05-10-2018
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 29.0/Issue-I/Chapter-II/Page – 05-10 [ SEPTEMBER-2018 EDITION ]
Article Code : AGS-V29-I1-C2-SEP2018 
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  

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Abstract : Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus    L.) weed is an annual herb in the family Asteraceae which is characterized by deep tap root, pale green leaves and an erect stem that becomes woody gradually.  It is very harmful to human, animal, agriculture and environment. The aim of the present study is to assess and evaluate the distribution and management options of Parthenium around Gondar town.  The study was conducted in around Gondar town across the peripheral roads.click here
 The study consists of field survey and evaluation of management options and it was purposeful cross sectional experimental and with quantitative study. The whole plant bioassay, leaf detached bioassay and seed germination bio assay tested by species of fungi isolated from the leaves of Parthenium weed and chemicals (Glyphosate and 2, 4-D).  The most effective fungus spp. was Alternaria alternate that induced 83% leaf damaged area on the 7thday in both leaf detached bioassay and whole plant bioassay.  On the seed germination bioassay the most effective was Aspergilus niger (f1) that reduce the seed germination by 76.5% followed by Alternaria alternate(f4), Fusarium solani(f2), Fusarium pallidoroseum(f6),Gliocladium virens(f3), Colleotrichum gloeosporiodies(f5),2,4-D and Glyphosate that inhibit seed germination by 71.28%, 68.23%, 64%, 60.33%, 58.5%,  39% and 38.33% respectively. The importance of this study was to introduce the management options of Parthenium weed and to decrease the impact of Parthenium weeds. The study concluded that biological management options of Parthenium weed was more effective than chemical herbicides.

KEY WORDS: Biological control, Chemical control, Distribution of Parthenium weed and Mycoherbicide.

 

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Philosophy [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
 3 TITLE NAME : FASTING AND THE BEATIFIC VISION- A Philosophical Appraisal of Fasting in Religious Experience
Author’s Name : Christopher Ikechukwu Asogwa (PhD)
Article Type : ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE 
Country from : Nigeria
Date of Publication:  05-10-2018
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 29.0/Issue-I/Chapter-III/Page – 11-16 [ SEPTEMBER-2018 EDITION ]
Article Code : PHL-V29-I1-C3-SEP2018
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  

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Abstract This paper appraised fasting in the religious experience of man. The main focus as such was to take a second look or re-examine the meaningfulness and truth, and religious significance of fasting. The justification of this effort is to be found in the fact that fasting is one of those common but crucial aspects of most religions which tends to always escape the scrutinizing attention of most philosophers of religion.click here
 The work actually looked simple only in the contemplation, the task of doing it actually was overbearing. This study was further necessitated by the need to constantly review the many tributaries to human heritage. Hence, this write-up on fasting as an aspect of human religious experience reached certain challenging conclusions.KEYWORDS Appraisal: To take a second look or re-examine the meaningfulness and truth and significance of things or issues. The justification of this effort is to be found in the fact that common but crucial aspects of things or issues tend to always escape scrutinizing attention.Abstinence: The action or practice of abstaining or refraining; forbearance.Fasting: All instances of deprivation, compulsory or optional, imposed or otherwise, of some or all the essentials of worldly life such as food, drink, sex or any other appetitive cravings for religious, political, social, economical and health reasons or purposes and for a definite period of time.Religious experience: This emphasizes a relationship between a higher and divine presence and a lower presence. The lower presence recognizes certain set of duties he owes to the higher divine presence. Man in time has developed these forms of interaction with his environment as the special experience called religion.

  

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CATEGORY : Research Topic on Philosophy [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
4 TITLE NAME : African countries and the need for a sustainable culture of  development
Author’s Name : Christopher Ikechukwu Asogwa (PhD)
Article Type : ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE 
Country from : Nigeria
Date of Publication:  05-10-2018
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 29.0/Issue-I/Chapter-VI/Page – 17-20 [ SEPTEMBER-2018 EDITION ]
Article Code : PHL-V29-I1-C4-SEP2018
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation

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Abstract : Development has always been measured in terms of per capita income; level of political consciousness, availability of social amenities and the extent of guarantee of fundamental human rights. In other words development can only be ‘cured’ in a culture (a people’s way of life). This paper in full awareness and understanding of this proposes to establish that the present culture of most African countries-obviously colonial inheritance- cannot sustain the developmental thrust needed by the African to be where the developed countries are. The paper identified the indicators of underdevelopment. The paper also established with ample evidence that oriental culture may be far more suitable for a sustainable culture of development in the African countries. click here
CATEGORY : Research Topic on Inorganic Chemistry [ Original Research Article]
SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
5 TITLE NAME : Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of some Mixed-Ligands Vital Metal Complexes of Levofloxacin as Potential Medical Agents
Author’s Name : Islam M. I. Moustafa1*, Helmy E. MegahedTamer S. A. El – Baddally3
Article Type :  ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE 
Country from : EGYPT
Date of Publication:  05-10-2018
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 29.0/Issue-I/Chapter-V/Page – 21-31 [ SEPTEMBER-2018 EDITION ]
Article Code : IC-V29-I1-C5-SEP2018
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  

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Abstract : Two series of mixed-ligands metal complexes of Fe(III), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zr(IV) based on levofloxacin as primary ligand, 8-hydroxyquinolene and 1,10-phenanthroline as secondary ligands were prepared and characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, UV-Vis. and ESR  spectroscopic techniques. The study showed  that levofloxacin interacted  with the metal ions as a mono basic bidentate ligand bound to the metal through the pyridone and one carboxylate oxygen atoms,  8-hydroxyquinoline bonded to metal ion  with its phenolic oxygen and ring nitrogen while 1,10-phenanthroline interacted through two ring nitrogen atoms thus producing stable mixed ligand complexes. click here
 The antibacterial activity of the complexes was tested against four different microorganisms where it was found that the complexes exhibited either comparable or increased antibacterial profile in comparison to the parent drug. The cytotoxic activities of some selected mixed ligands complexes were tested against HEPG2 cell line and compared to that of Vinblastine as a standard drug. The structural and molecular orbital calculations of the compounds were investigated theoretically by performing density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the structure, dynamics, surface properties, and thermodynamics of the inorganic systems. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies showed that intramolecular charge transfer occurs within the molecules.KEYWORD: mixed ligand complexes, Levofloxacin, antibacterial activity, cytotoxic activity, molecular molding, DFT theory.

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Earth & Space Science Original Research Article ]
SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
6 TITLE NAME : Energies basic numbers and geometry
Author’s Name : Gudrun Kalmbach H.E.
Article Type : ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE 
Country from : GERMANY
Date of Publication:  05-10-2018
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 29.0/Issue-I/Chapter-VI/Page – 32-37 [ SEPTEMBER-2018 EDITION ]
Article Code : ESS-V29-I1-C6-SEP2018
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  

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Abstract : In this article the MINT-Wigris model of the author for deuteron states is investigated for a new interpretation of well known natural or physical numbers. Planck numbers are the start. For nucleons and protons the hedgehog geometry with six energies are presented. In the final section the changing deuteron states are directed through a switschboard for experiments. It is driven by three color charges bound (potential, strong, weak) forces which act like motors for the inner time crystal dynamics (figure 3) of deuteron. click here
 The neutral color charge of nucleons is defined as an rgb-graviton, making geometrical (stereographic or orthogonal) projections. This octonian world is projected down from the strong complex 3-dimensional strong coordinates to 4-dimensional weak spacetime coordinates which allows its rippling as experimentally detected for graviton waves. Beside including gravity in a unification of the four basic forces the methods are new symmetries, the Moebius transformations, the use of Gleason triples for measurements (figure 4) and homogeneous projective geometry.   KEYWORDenergy, basic numbers, time crystal, geometry.

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Environmental Science [ Original Research Article ]
SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
7 TITLE NAME : Physio-Chemical assessment of water sources for drinking purpose in Badin City, Sindh Province, Pakistan, (Water Supply Schemes and Hand Pumps)
Author’s Name : Manzoor Ahmed Sanjrani1, *Hafeez Ahmed Talpur2, Shakeel Ahmed Talpur3
Article Type : ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE
Country from : PAKISTAN
Date of Publication:  10-10-2018
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 29.0/Issue-I/Chapter-VII/Page – 38-44 [ SEPTEMBER-2018 EDITION ]
Article Code : ENV-V29-I1-C7-SEP2018
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  

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Abstract : Recently, water bodies contain several types of chemicals and the quantity is more than there were couples of years ago. Clean and safe drinking water is one of the basic needs of life and society. Pakistan is the country will all types of water resources, around the country, water quality is crossing the limit above WHO level standard for the drinking water of different big regions. Study area of this study is Badin city, Sindh province, Pakistan. Present study focused on “Physio-Chemical assessment of water sources for drinking purpose in Badin City, Sindh Province, Pakistan”.  click here
 Ten sites from Badin city were decided for sampling to assess the drinking water from different water bodies, the areas names are: Canal Water (Jamali Village), Hand Pump (Jamali Village), WSS Pond By Pass, Hand Pump (Laghari Village), Tap Water (Chandia Nangar), WSS Pond (Ward No-04), Filter Plant (Bilawal Park), Civil Hospital Badin, Iqra School Badin, Akram Canal etc. The Different physio-chemical parameters of water samples i.e. TDS, EC, color, temperature, odor, and pH of water samples were analyzed during sampling and further analyses of Hardness, chloride, nitrate, Bicarbonate, Sulfate and heavy metals such as Fluoride, Arsenic and the essential metal ions (Calcium, Potassium, Magnesium, and Sodium) was conducted in the lab “Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources, Pakistan. Water sample from the Hand Pump (Laghari Village) and Hand Pump (Jamali Village) have been found contaminated above standard water quality, Samples from different sites showing different results and not suitable for drinking without proper treatment specially Hand Pump (Laghari Village) and Hand Pump (Jamali Village). To get clean safe drinking water, the concepts of house hold sand filter and innovative biosand filter is recommended and can be successfully applied as low cost techniques.

KEYWORDS: Physiochemical evaluation, sources, water quality, drinking water, Badin.

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Medical Science Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
8 TITLE NAME : Association between NFKB1 (-94 ins/del ATTG) gene polymorphism and Multiple Sclerosis in the Turkish Population
Author’s Name : Arman A1, Erzaim N2, Isik, N3, Saridal M4 , Hoscan AY5 and List EO6
Article Type : ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE 
Country from : TURKEY
Date of Publication:  10-10-2018
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 29.0/Issue-I/Chapter-VIII/Page – 45-49 [ SEPTEMBER-2018 EDITION ]
Article Code : MDS-V29-I1-C8-SEP2018
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download: Full Article (pdf)

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AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and an autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). It is suggested that the NFκB signaling pathway is involved in MS development and that NFκB is a key transcription factor involved in the regulation of immune response, apoptosis and pathology of autoimmune diseases.  A recently discovered promoter polymorphism in NFKB1 (-94 insertion/deletion ATTG) gene may be associated with MS development.click here
 The purpose of this study was to reveal the relationship between NFKB1 -94 insertion/deletion ATTG polymorphism and MS in a Turkish population. A total of 379 patients with MS and 214 healthy individuals from the Turkish population were investigated. The promoter region of NFKB1 gene was amplified DNAs from patients and controls by specific primers and their PCR products were digested by suitable enzyme.NFKB1 (-94 ins/del ATTG) genotype distribution showed a strong association with MS (p=0.0001), and the NFKB1 (-94 ins /del ATTG) allele frequency also showed a significant association to the disease (p = 0.011).Our results suggested that the NFKB1 -94 ins/del ATTG gene promoter polymorphism is associated with MS in the Turkish population.KEYWORDS: Inflammation, Multiple Sclerosis,  NFKB1, Polymorphism,  Transcription Factors

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Medical Science Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
9 TITLE NAME :Drug Target Identification and Inhibition of Aeromonas salmonicida Cytochrome Oxidase in the Treatment of Furunculosis Infected Clarias gariepnus
Author’s Name : Parker Elijah JoshuaChinedu Ifeanyi Atama2Olanrewaju Ayodeji Durojaye3Samuel Cosmas4,Collins Arthur Difa5
Article Type : ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE 
Country from : NIGERIA
Date of Publication:  10-10-2018
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 29.0/Issue-I/Chapter-IX/Page – 50-55 [ SEPTEMBER-2018 EDITION ]
Article Code : MDS-V29-I1-C9-SEP2018
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download: Full Article (pdf) 

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Abstract : Background: Fishes are susceptible to a wide variety of bacterial pathogens.  Many of these bacteria capable of causing diseases are considered to be saprophytic in nature.  These bacteria only become pathogens when fishes are physiologically unbalanced, nutritionally deficient, or there are other stressors, i.e., poor water quality, overstocking, which allow opportunistic bacterial infections to proceed. Furuncles classically are described as a dark, raised tumefaction involving the skin, subcutis and underlying skeletal musculature.  These lesions will ulcerate and drain a serosanguinous fluid. These lesions develop from the localization of Aeromonas salmonicida bacteria in the muscle or skin.  The lesion histologically is characterized by marked necrosis of the skin, subcutis and skeletal muscle with mild to minimal acute inflammatory infiltrates in the acute stage.click here
Materials and Methods: A molecular docking study was carried out on five structurally diverse isolated clover compounds against Aeromonas salmonicida cytochrome oxidase, using the Autodock Vina software. The Swiss Model server was utilized in the 3D structure modelling of the cytochrome oxidase enzyme and extensive structure activity relationship study was also carried out on these molecules using the SwissADME.  The isolated compounds from clover were designed using the ChemAxon software. The scoring function (empirical binding free energy) was used in the estimation of the inhibitory activity of the protein-ligand complex.Results: The binding energy of acetyleugenol, furfural, gallic acid, methyl-n-amyl ketone, oleanolic acid, rhamnetin, sesquiterpene lactone and vanillin were -6.8, -4.6, -6.1, -4.6, -10.2, -9.4, -8.4 and -5.7Kcal/mol respectively. The low values (negative) of free binding energies displayed by the bioactive components of clover means that they show a high level of antibacterial activity. All compounds except the oleanolic acid violated none of the lipinski’s rule of 5 which makes them druglike.Conclusion: The results from the in-silico pharmacokinetics and molecular docking clearly indicated that the rhamnetin substituent may be a better antibacterial agent, having exhibited a good binding affinity with the Aeromonas salmonicida cytochrome oxidase and also showed good druglikeness characteristics. Laboratory synthesis and pre-clinical studies of the rhamnetin component with Aeromonas salmonicida cytochrome oxidase is recommended in order to confirm its potentials as a better antibacterial agent than the other compounds isolated from clover.

KEYWORDS: Bacteria; Furuncules; Cytochrome oxidase; Molecular docking; Oleanolic acid

 

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Animal Science Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
10 TITLE NAME : Microbe-Fermented Cassava Tuber Waste-Based Diets: Effects on Performance and Serum Biochemistry of Cockerel Finishers.
Author’s Name : Oniyelu, A. B1, Aro, S.O2
Article Type : ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE 
Country from : NIGERIA
Date of Publication:  10-10-2018
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 29.0/Issue-I/Chapter-X/Page – 56-60 [ SEPTEMBER-2018 EDITION ]
Article Code : AMLS-V29-I1-C10-SEP2018
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download: Full Article (pdf)

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AbstractThe effects of dietary inclusion of microbe-fermented cassava tuber wastes on growth performance and serum biochemistry of cockerel finishers were evaluated in a 16-week experiment. The birds were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments comprising thirty birds per treatment. Each treatment was replicated thrice with 10 birds per replicate. The cassava tuber wastes (cassava peels and cassava starch residues) were enriched through microbial fermentation using two different strains of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus coryneformis) and a fungus (Aspergillus fumigatus).  click here
Seven experimental diets were formulated to contain graded levels of the microbe-fermented cassava peel and cassava starch residue at 0%, 20%, 40% and 60%. Grade 1 (G1), the control treatment, contained 0% microbe-fermented cassava tuber wastes (CTWs), Grades 2 (G2), 3 (G3) and 4 (G4) contained 20%, 40% and 60%  microbe-fermented cassava peel (MFCP) while Grades 5 (G5), 6 (G6) and 7 (G7) contained 20%, 40% and 60% of  microbe-fermented cassava starch residues (MFCSR) respectively. Results showed that G4 had the lowest final body weight (1002.82±64.56g) while G1 had the highest (1635.19±32.45g). The poorest feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 8.77±0.62 was observed in G4 while the best (4.42±0.17) was recorded in G1. Serum total protein was highest in G6 (40.73±7.86g/l) and lowest in G1 (25.16±7.37g/l). Total protein (TP) in all the treatments with CTWs were higher than that of the control diet. Serum globulin was highest in G2 (28.28±5.14g/l) and lowest in G1 (14.96±7.31g/l). Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the CTW diets compared well with the control diet (487.60±12.17g/l) with the exception of G7 (243.80±59.80g/l). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was highest in G4 (23.67±14.52µ/l) but lowest in G2 (5.00±0.58µ/l). Conclusively, cockerels can be raised and finished on diets containing 20% inclusion of microbe-fermented cassava peels (MFCP) and 40% microbe-fermented cassava starch residue (MFCSR) without any adverse effects on performance and biochemical profile of the birds. At 60% level of both MFCP and MFCSR, poor performance and negative biochemical manifestations which may compromise normal physiological responses in cockerels could be observed.Keywords: Biochemistry, Cassava Tuber Wastes, Cockerel, Fermentation, Physiology, Serum.

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Biological Science Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
11 TITLE NAME : PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF HOSPITAL TOO FAR (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius)
Author’s Name :Lennox, J. A*., John, G.  E. and Asitok, A.
Article Type : ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE 
Country from : NIGERIA
Date of Publication:  10-10-2018
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 29.0/Issue-I/Chapter-XI/Page – 61-65 [ SEPTEMBER-2018 EDITION ]
Article Code : BGS-V29-I1-C11-SEP2018
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation 

Download: Full Article (pdf) 

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Abstract : This study was carried out to determine the phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (hospital too far) leaves. The plant leaves were obtained from area gardens. The useful components of the leaves were extracted with distilled water (aqueous) and methanol. The phytochemical components both qualitative and quantitative were determined and their activities tested against some pathogenic bacteria. The results of the qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponin, alkaloids, glycosides, polyphenols flavonoids, reducing compounds and trace  tannins. Phlobatanins, anthraquinones and hydroxymethyl anthraquinones were absent. Further, quantitative phytochemical analysis in (mg/100g) revealed that tannins, saponin, alkaloids, glycosides, polyphenols flavonoids and reducing compounds contain 0.21±0.02, 1.20±0.1, 2.50±0.1, 2.44±0.01, 9.18±0.1. 3.50±0.1, and 4.60±0.02 respectively. click here
It was observed that polyphenols had the highest quantity of 9.18 and tannin the lowest quantity 0.21mg/100g. The screening of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extracts against some pathogenic bacteria showed some positive antibacterial activity against the selected pathogens. The antimicrobial activities against the pathogenic test organisms ranged from 12.0mm to 17.0mm zones of inhibition at 5g/ml of the aqueous extract for S. aureus and E. coli. At 10g/ml of the aqueous extract, the inhibition zones ranged from20.5mm to 26.0 for S. typhi and P. aeruginosa. For the ethanol extract at 5g/ml, the zones of inhibition were 17.0mm, 18.0mm, 20.0mm, 21.0mm, 22.0mm, and 23.0mm for S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, S. typhi, E. coli and S. pyogenes respectively. At 10g/ml ethanol extract, the zones of inhibiyion were 27.5mm, 28.0mm, 28.5mm, 29.0mm, 30.0mm and 31.0mm for E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, S. typhi and S pyogenes respectively. All the extracts showed more effectiveness as compared to  Streptomycin and Septrin and compete favorably with Ciprofloxacin and Ofloxacin. Hospital too far has the potential therefore based on the results to be used to combat most of the diseases caused by the tested pathogens.Key words: Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, phytochemical, antibacterial, antibiotics,  Hospital too far.. 

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Agricultural Science 

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