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2022

JULY 2022/ Vol.75.0/ Issue-I 

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CATEGORY : Research Topic on Education [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
 1 Manuscript Title : Challenges of Online Education in Education during the Crisis of Covid-19 in rural areas of West Bengal
Author’s Name : Mr. Sanatan Sahoo
Article Type : Original Research Article
Country from : INDIA
Date of Publication:  10-09-2022
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 75.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-I/Page – 01-04 [JULY-2022 EDITION ]
Article Code : EDU-V75-I1-C1-JUL-2022
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download PDF : Full article (Pdf)
Doi No : 10.5281/zenodo.7066299

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ABSTRACT: At present, Covid-19 has caused a stir in the whole world. This has disrupted normal public life in the economic, political social and educational spheres. Most academic heads are now promoting online education as a solution to this crisis. The structure is essential for reading online, excluding the traditional environment in the classroom. The pandemic has been steering the education sector forward with technological innovation and advancements. The pandemic has significantly disrupted the higher education sector. click here

 With the consideration to the fact the present study tries to illustrate the challenges of the state which are not as advanced in technology as the state blessed with high tech technology. The objective of the study was challenges of online Education in Higher Education level during the Crisis of Covid-19 in West Bengal. The study was qualitative in approach and data were collected from secondary sources like books, Articles, Journals, Thesis, University News, websites and e-contents relating to impact of Covid-19 on higher educational system of West Bengal. Findings of the study show that though online education has a number of challenges faced by higher students. Challenges of online Education in Higher Education level during the Crisis of COVID-19 in West Bengal are reduced face-to-face support, Students encounter technical difficulties, Lack of effective Communication, Students’ lack of self-motivation, Slow internet speed, Costly etc. But many universities and the government of West Bengal are relentlessly trying to come up with a solution to resolve this problem.

KEYWORDS: challenges, online education, education system, corona crisis.

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Medical Science [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
 2 Manuscript Title : Macrodactyly- A case report
Author’s Name : S K Gupta, Saurabh Singh, Kameshwar Singh3,*Vivek Maurya4
Article Type : Case Study
Country from : INDIA
Date of Publication:  10-09-2022
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 75.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-II/Page – 05-07 [JULY-2022 EDITION ]
Article Code : MDS-V75-I1-C2-JUL-2022
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download PDF : Full article (Pdf)
Doi No : 10.5281/zenodo.7066422

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ABSTRACT: Macrodactyly is a rare non-hereditary congenital anomaly of finger and toes and it is very difficult to treat this, as it largely depends on exposure of surgeon to the disease process. The disease process may be static or progressive. It accounts for about 1% of upper extremity congenital anomalies.  click here

 Usually involve fibrofatty tissue and sometimes bones. The first detail study was done by Barsky in 1967. It is linked with mutation in the PIK3CA gene which control cell proliferation and migration. Barsky defined it as an increase in size of all the elements or structures within a digit or digits1. Kelikian coined the term “Nerve territory-oriented macrodactyly” due to involvement of area along the digital nerve2. This is an isolated case as no other deformity is present to group it under congenital deformity syndrome.

KEYWORDS: Macrodactyly, congenital anomaly, fibrofatty tissue, congenital deformity syndrome.

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Language [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
 3 Manuscript Title : Exploring the socio pragmatic aspect of Almajirai discourse : Bara in Niger
Author’s Name : ABOUBAKAR Nana Aichatou
Article Type : Original Research Article
Country from : NIGER REPUBLIC
Date of Publication:  10-09-2022
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 75.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-III/Page – 08-15 [JULY-2022 EDITION ]
Article Code : LNG-V75-I1-C3-JUL-2022
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation 
Download PDF : Full article (Pdf)
Doi No : 10.5281/zenodo.7066438

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ABSTRACTThis study investigated the socio-pragmatic content and functions of Bara. It seeks to provide insights on the way a given social group (Aalmajirai) constructed language patterns, bara in view to impacting positively on the minds of their addressees and serve their purpose within a given social fabric. Besides, Bara is viewed as a significant sociocultural phenomenon which has arguably been around since the event of Islamic religion in most West African countries. The naturally occurring data used were collected randomly based on observation and experience at different times, transcribed and analysed based on various available approaches. click here

 The study found out that the expressions used are true reflections of the feelings, concerns and needs of the population under study. The findings also revealed that Bara fulfilled the six functions of language. Strikingly, in this study the wind of linguistic and cultural dynamism did not blow in the context of this phenomenon as no variations nor change were depicted regarding this language. Laden with social and cultural dimensions these expressions Almajirai have developed as unique linguistic nuances that are socio-linguistically tied to their social and educational (Almajirci system) background are useful strategic competent communicative tools in their hands. As such and as things have since deteriorated, that the concept of Bara begging for food is misconceived, misinterpreted as synonymous to street begging translated as ‘un fait social’, worse as a social malaise, it is recommended further research should be undertaken to study the other face of the phenomenon. It is hoped the study will be of valued contribution to linguistic studies, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, educational psychology, education and least but not last to authority.

KEYWORDS: Bara, Almajirai, Socio-Pragmatics, strategic competence communicative tools, ,language variation, fait social,

CATEGORY : Research Topic on History [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
 4 Manuscript Title : সাম্প্রদায়িকতা ও দেশভাগ
Author’s Name : Dr. Sumit Kumar Mondal
Article Type : Original Research Article
Country from : INDIA
Date of Publication:  31-07-2022
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 74.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-I/Page – 01-04 [JUNE-2022 EDITION ]
Article Code : HIS-V74-I1-C1-JUNE-2022
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download PDF : Full article (Pdf)
Doi No : 10.5281/zenodo.6949191

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ABSTRACTপ্রাচীন ভারতে বৈদিক যুগের আর্য অনার্য বিভাজন ছিল বর্ণের ভিত্তিতে। তা সম্প্রদায়ভিত্তিক তথা সাম্প্রদায়িক ছিল না। এরপর ব্রাহ্মণ, বৈশ্য ও শূদ্রদের মধ্যে যে বিভাজন ছিল তা হলো জাতিভেদ। কর্ম বা পেশা তথা অর্থনৈতিক বৈষম্য বা শোষণ সংক্রান্ত বিষয় জড়িত থাকলেও এরমধ্যে সাম্প্রদায়িকতা সুলভ চরিত্র ছিল না।  click here

 ক্রমে বৈশ্য ও শূদ্ররা শোষণ ও ব্রাহ্মণ্যধর্মের অনাচারের বিরুদ্ধে প্রতিবাদী আন্দোলনে সামিল হলে জাতপাতহীন জৈন ও বৌদ্ধ ধর্মের উদ্ভব হয়। প্রাচীনকালে জৈন, বৌদ্ধ ও হিন্দু ধর্মাবলম্বীদের মধ্যে সাম্প্রদায়িক মনোভাব বা দাঙ্গার তেমন পরিচয় মেলে না। পারসিক, গ্রীক প্রভৃতি জাতি আক্রমণকারী ভারতে এলেও যারা ভারতে থেকে যায়, তারা ভারতীয় সংস্কৃতির অঙ্গীভূত হয়ে যায়। এদের মধ্যে সাম্প্রদায়িকতা আসেনি। মৌর্যযুগের অশোকের আমলে গৃহপতি ও শ্রেষ্ঠী শ্রেণির বিকাশের ফলে তাদের মাধ্যমে বৈশ্যরা ব্রাহ্মণদের দ্বারা শোষণের বিরোধিতা করে মর্যাদা বৃদ্ধিতে সচেষ্ট হয়।[i] এভাবে প্রচলিত জাতি ব্যবস্থায় সংকট তৈরি হলে অশোক জাতিভেদ হীন এক ধম্মকে তুলে ধরে তার সমাধানের প্রয়াস নেন।

সাংকেতিক লিপি : সাম্প্রদায়িকতা, জাতিভেদ, ভারতীয় সংস্কৃতি

CATEGORY : Research Topic on History [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
 5 Manuscript Title : সাম্প্রদায়িকতা ষড়যন্ত্র- দেশভাগ
Author’s Name : Mr. Rebati Ranjan Ojha
Article Type : Original Research Article
Country from : INDIA
Date of Publication:  31-07-2022
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 74.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-II/Page – 05-12 [JUNE-2022 EDITION ]
Article Code : HIS-V74-I1-C2-JUNE-2022
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download PDF : Full article (Pdf)
Doi No : 10.5281/zenodo.6949211

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ABSTRACT১৯৪৭ সালের ১৫ই আগস্ট আমরা ভারতবাসী দীর্ঘ ২০০ বছরের বিদেশী আপশাসন থেকে মুক্ত হলাম। ‘ব্রিটিশ সাম্রাজ্যে কখনো সূর্য অস্তমিত হয়না’- ইংরেজদের এই দম্ভ চূর্ণবিচূর্ণ হল। স্বাধীন হল ভারতবর্ষ, সঙ্গে বিভক্ত হল দেশ। অবশ্য ব্রিটিশরা আমাদের কাছ থেকে একটিমাত্র দেশ অধিকার করতে পেরেছিল, আমরা তাদের কাছ থেকে আদায় করে নিয়েছিলাম দুটি দেশ। এটা নেটিভ ভারতবাসী হিসাবে আমাদের কাছে কম কৃতিতের নয়।   click here

 অবশ্য এটা ভারতীয়দের প্রতি সভ্য ইংরেজদের উপহারও হতে পারে। যদিও আমরা সাধারন ভারতবাসী কখনো এই উপহার চাইনি, চেয়েছিলাম স্বাধীন অখণ্ড ভারতবর্ষ। তাহলে কেন ভারতবর্ষ খণ্ডিত হল? শুধুই কি ধ্রূত  ইংরেজদের ষড়যন্ত্র,  না তৎকালীন ভারতীয় নেতাদের নির্বুদ্ধিতা, হঠকারিতাও এর জন্য দায়ী ছিল। অবশ্যই তৎকালীন ভারতের প্রধান দুই রাজনৈতিক দল জাতীয় কংগ্রেস ও মুসলিম লীগ কমবেশি দায়ী ছিল, সে আলোচনায় পরে আসছি। তবে  দেশভাগের পরিনতি হয়েছিল ভয়ঙ্কর। সাম্প্রদায়িক দাঙ্গা, খুন, ধর্ষণ, লুণ্ঠন, অগ্নিসংযোগ, বাস্তুচ্যুত হয়ে উদ্বাস্তু জীবনযাপন– যা কিন্তু ২০০ বছরের ব্রিটিশ অপশাসনকেও হার মানিয়েছিল।

সাংকেতিক লিপি : জাতীয় কংগ্রেস, দেশভাগ, মুসলিম লীগ, সাম্প্রদায়িকতা, ষড়যন্ত্র।

CATEGORY : Research Topic on History [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
6 Manuscript Title : দেশভাগ ও পশ্চিমবঙ্গে অভিবাসন: একটি ভৌগলিক অনুসন্ধান
Author’s Name : Mr. Prasenjit Pal
Article Type : Original Research Article
Country from : INDIA
Date of Publication:  31-07-2022
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 74.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-III/Page – 13-17 [JUNE-2022 EDITION ]
Article Code : HIS-V74-I1-C3-JUNE-2022
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download PDF : Full article (Pdf)
Doi No : 10.5281/zenodo.6949225

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ABSTRACTআন্তর্জাতিক পরিব্রাজন সামাজিক, সাংস্কৃতিক, অর্থনৈতিক ও রাজনৈতিক দিকসমূহকে একত্রিত করে, যা অনেকক্ষেত্রে কোনো অঞ্চলের বিভিন্ন সুবিধা-অসুবিধার নির্ধারক হয়ে দাঁড়ায়। ভারতের স্বাধীনতার সময় (১৯৪৭) থেকে বাংলাদেশের মুক্তিযুদ্ধের অবসানের সময় পর্যন্ত, অর্থাৎ ১৯৭১ সালে, আন্তঃসীমান্ত বাংলাদেশী অভিবাসীদের প্রবাহ ছিল খুব বেশি এবং একটি ধারাবাহিক প্রক্রিয়া। বাংলাদেশের স্বাধীনতার পরও এই অনুপ্রবেশ বন্ধ হয়নি।  click here

 বাংলাদেশের সাথে ভারতের দীর্ঘ সীমান্ত রেখার প্রায় অর্ধেক পশ্চিমবঙ্গের ভৌগলিক সীমার অন্তর্ভুক্ত। উভয় ভৌগোলিক অঞ্চলের মানুষ ভাষাগত এবং জাতিগতভাবে একই রকম। তাই ভারতের পশ্চিমবঙ্গ ক্রস বর্ডার মাইগ্রেশন দ্বারা সবচেয়ে বেশি প্রভাবিত। পশ্চিমবঙ্গের জনসংখ্যার বৃদ্ধি মূলত এই অভিবাসনের দ্বারা প্রভাবিত, বিশেষ করে সীমান্তবর্তী জেলাগুলিতে জনসংখ্যার  বিন্যাসে গুরুত্বপূর্ণ ভূমিকা পালন করে। তবে শুধুমাত্র জনসংখ্যার বৃদ্ধি  বা বিন্যাস নয়,পশ্চিমবঙ্গের আর্থসামাজিক ও রাজনৈতিক কার্যকারনেও এই আন্তর্জাতিক পরিব্রাজনের  ভূমিকা অনস্বীকার্য। এই গবেষণাপত্রে ১৯৪৭  থেকে ২০১১ সাল পর্যন্ত বাংলাদেশি অভিবাসনের প্রকৃতি এবং এর ফলাফল ভৌগলিক দৃষ্টিতে বিশ্লেষণ করা হয়েছে।

সাংকেতিক লিপি : আন্তর্জাতিক পরিব্রাজন, দেশভাগ,অনুপ্রবেশ, সীমান্ত

CATEGORY : Research Topic on History [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
 7 Manuscript Title : বিবর্তনের প্রেক্ষিতে নদিয়া জেলার শোলাশিল্প ও শিল্পীসমাজ
Author’s Name : Mr. Sandip Biswas
Article Type : Original Research Article
Country from : INDIA
Date of Publication:  31-07-2022
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 74.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-IV/Page – 18-22 [JUNE-2022 EDITION ]
Article Code : HIS-V74-I1-C4-JUNE-2022
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download PDF : Full article (Pdf)
Doi No : 10.5281/zenodo.6949243

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ABSTRACT: নদিয়া জেলার পারিবারিক ও গোষ্ঠীকেন্দ্রিক শোলাশিল্পের সঙ্গে প্রায় প্রতিটি বাঙালি পরিবার পরিচিত। ‘সোল’ অর্থাৎ নীচু জমিতে জন্মায় বলে এই শিল্পের প্রধান উপকরণকে শোলা বলা হয়। নবশাখ-এর অন্তর্গত মালাকার জাতি এই শিল্পের সঙ্গে যুক্ত। এরা ছাড়াও স্থানভেদে এবং সময়ের বিবর্তনে নানা সম্প্রদায়ের মানুষ এই শিল্পের সঙ্গে নিজেদের যুক্ত করেছে।  click here

 শোলা গাছকে খণ্ড করে কেটে অঙ্গাঙ্গী জুড়ে তৈরি হয় এর সহজ সরল শিল্পরুপ। শিল্প নির্মাণের প্রধান উপকরন হল সোজা আকারের ছুরি বা ‘কাইত’। এই শিল্পের প্রধান উৎপাদিত দ্রব্য মালা, টোপর, মূর্তিসাজ, প্রতিটি মাঙ্গলিক অনুষ্ঠানের প্রতিকধর্মী। অতীত থেকে ঔপনিবেশিক সময় পর্যন্ত প্রশাসনিক অপশাসনের সংযোগহীন স্থানীয় মানুষরা ছিলেন এই শিল্পের রুপকার। এমনকি আগত উদ্বাস্তুদের অনেকে অবসর এবং অবসাদ কাটানোর জন্য বৃত্তাকার অভিগমনের মাধ্যমে এর সঙ্গে যুক্ত হয়। কিন্তু নব্বই-এর দশক থেকে অভিরুচির পরিবর্তন এই শিল্পের ক্রমাবনতির কারন অনুসন্ধানের চর্চা আঞ্চলিক ইতিহাসকে সমৃদ্ধ করবে।

সাংকেতিক লিপি : শোলা, মালাকার, প্রজুক্তি, উদবাস্তু, অভিরুচি, অবনমন।

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Medical Science [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
8 Manuscript Title : Histomorphological Pattern Analysis of Endometrial Carcinomas in a Tertiary Care Hospital
Author’s Name : Dr. Dharani V C , *Dr. Manjunath H K2, Dr. Akshatha Basavaraju, Dr. Bhargavi Mohan4, Dr. Sushman T A, Dr. Hassan Sona Rai6 , Dr. Vineethra K& Dr. Vishwas Suresh8
Article Type : Original Research Article
Country from : INDIA
Date of Publication:  30-06-2022
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 73.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-I/Page – 01-07 [MAY-2022 EDITION ]
Article Code : MDS-V73-I1-C1-MAY-2022
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download PDF : Full article (Pdf)
Doi No : 10.5281/zenodo.6785687 

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ABSTRACTBackground: Endometrial carcinoma which has various histological types is the commonest invasive cancer of female genital tract. Two general groups of endometrial cancer include Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 tumors are related to prolonged estrogenic stimulation and include endometrioid type and type 2 includes serous carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. click here

 

Materials and methods:  The present study is a retrospective study conducted in the department of pathology at BGS GIMS from January 2018- January 2021.  All the endometrial carcinoma specimens obtained from D&C and hysterectomy specimens were assessed on paraffin embedded sections stained with H&E stain and  immunohistochemical study was done wherever required.

Results : In the present study 33 cases of endometrial carcinoma cases were analyzed. Majority of them were >60years (36.5%) and most were post-menopausal females .Most common clinical presentation was abnormal uterine / post-menopausal bleeding seen in 100% of cases . The most common histological type observed was endometrioid type (81.8% )of endometrial carcinoma followed by serous carcinoma(6.4%)and carcinosarcoma(6.4%). One case of endometrioid carcinoma with secretory differentiation was reported. Most of endoemetrioid carcinomas belonged to FIGO histological grade 1(71.4%) and the  most common TNM stage was Stage 1A (60%) with majority of them showing less than half of myometrial invasion(60%). Importance of IHC in differentiating variants of endometrial carcinoma found to be very significant.

Conclusion:  Endoemetrioid type of endometrial carcinoma was the most common histological type seen and  generally present in early stage and carry good prognosis when compared to other variants like serous carcinoma, adenosarcoma which present in late stages and carry bad prognosis. Detailed study of histological appearance of endometrial carcinoma provides  insight into prognosis and plays a role in determining therapy.

KEYWORDS: Endometrioid carcinoma, carcinoscarcoma. Myometrial invasion, prognosis  Serous carcinoma , secretory carcinoma.

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Language [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
9 Manuscript Title : Stylistic thinking of Sheikh Ali Jarim and Sheikh Musthafa Amin in the book “Al-Balaghah Al-Wadhihah”
Author’s Name : Prof. Dr. H. Ahmad Fahmy Arief
Article Type : Original Research Article
Country from : INDONESIA
Date of Publication:  31-05-2022
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 72.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-I/Page – 01-09 [APRIL-2022 EDITION ]
Article Code : LNG-V72-I1-C1-APR-2022
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download PDF : Full article (Pdf)
Doi No : 10.5281/zenodo.6597126

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ABSTRACT: Sheikh Ali Jarim and Sheikh Mustafa Amin are a series of writers from Egypt. The book “اَلْبَلَاغَةُ الْوَاضِحَةُ” in the field of stylistic studies and the book “اَلْنَحْوُ الْوَاضِحُ” in the field of Arabic grammar studies, are monumental works from both. This work was warmly welcomed by Arabic language and literature teachers in the Arab world and even in Indonesia. click here

 

The rapturous response was partly due to the writing style and systematics presented by the author. The two works above follow the writing style of writers from Europe who put forward a coherent systematic.

The book “اَلْبَلَاغَةُ الْوَاضِحَةُ” appears as books of Western literature circulating in Europe and America, systematically. It appears no longer like the religious books circulating in the Arab world called the “Yellow Book” and the “Gundul Book”. It appears in a good format, there are certain chapters, there are certain articles, there are certain rules, there are certain examples, there are certain exercises, and of course there is information about the literature used in the writing.

KEYWORDS: stylistic studies , Arabic grammar studies, Arabic language and literature,

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Medical Science [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
10 Manuscript Title : Medical Management as First Line Therapy for Orbital Complications due to acute Rhinosinusitis.
Author’s Name : Dr. Vasant Pawar Dr. Sunil Deshmukh *Dr. Keya Waney3   
Article Type : Original Research Article
Country from : INDIA
Date of Publication:  10-03-2022
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 69.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-I/Page – 01-06 [JANUARY-2022 EDITION ]
Article Code : MED-V69-I1-C1-JAN-2022
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download PDF : Full article (Pdf)
Doi No : 10.5281/zenodo.6341623

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ABSTRACT: Orbital cellulitis is the most common acute complication of ethmoidal sinusitis. A study of 4 cases, presented to ENT OPD with orbital swelling since 3-5 days and ipsilateral nasal discharge. History, CT findings, vitals with ophthalmic evaluation were noted. All the patients received systemic antibiotics with topical decongestant nasal drops and topical eye ointment and drops.  click here

  Complications of rhinosinusitis result from progression of acute or chronic infection beyond the paranasal sinuses. In children it is more likely that there will be no prior history of sinusitis, the complication often being the first presentation. Early administration of broad- spectrum IV antibiotics can reduce the risk of further life- threatening complications and even abate the need for surgery.

KEYWORDS: Acute Rhinosinusitis, complications of sinusitis, medical management, Orbital abscess, Orbital cellulitis, Topical decongestant.     

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Education [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
11 Manuscript Title : Women In Every Sphere of Society
Author’s Name : Mr. Debabrata Pramanik   
Article Type : Original Research Article
Country from : INDIA
Date of Publication:  10-03-2022
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 69.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-I/Page – 07-12 [JANUARY-2022 EDITION ]
Article Code : EDU-V69-I1-C2-JAN-2022
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download PDF : Full article (Pdf)
Doi No : 10.5281/zenodo.6341642

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ABSTRACT:

Women are the main basis of society. I think, women are playing their key role significantly in every sphere of society. Actually, many institutions and organizations are there in our society. Women are involved in these institutions and performed their activities very well. Women are taking care of their family members as well as they are taking part in many areas such as politics, government offices, sports, professional training jobs, business, religious and cultural events etc. click here

 

Role of women has changed tremendously and is making its greatest impact in our society today. In ancient period, women are controlled by men. Gender based discrimination still the ugly face of society, such as domestic violence, sexual harassment in workplace or home, female infanticides, rape in public arenas etc. it’s a universal phenomenon. But there are some changes has been occurred now. UNICEF and many other country like India, have taken all appropriate safety measures for women. Now they are standing high and are playing a major role in many important areas like in sports, education, parliament house, media house etc. They are educating themselves and concerned with their improvements. Possibilities have opened in the era of globalization. In India, the socio-economic status of women is much higher than before. Today they are enjoying many more social and legal rights and have greater freedom.

Women can participate more freely in public affairs today. For example, many women are reading news as anchor, taking participate in international games and employed in various fields, ranked better than male in educational fields. Women are holding very prestigious position in every sphere of society.

KEYWORDS: Women in the Sphere of Education, Work-force and Empowerment, Politics, Environmental Conservation, Women Entrepreneurs, Women in the Sphere of Sports, Governmental Programmes in Support of Women in India.        

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Finance & Management [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
12 Manuscript Title : Assessment of the analysis of the sustainability of the RA public debt according to the MAC DSA methodology of the International Monetary Fund.
Author’s Name : Dr. Ashot Matevosyan1 , *Ani Grigoryan 2
Article Type : Original Research Article
Country from : ARMENIA
Date of Publication:  23-02-2022
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 68.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-I/Page – 01-09 [DECEMBER-2021 EDITION ]
Article Code : FM-V68-I1-C1-DEC-2021
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download PDF : Full article (Pdf)
Doi No : 10.5281/zenodo.6237359

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ABSTRACTSustainability of the public debt is a necessary condition for macroeconomic stability and long-term economic growth. However, in order to be sustainable, the government must service the debt without declaring insolvency, renegotiating the terms of the debt or restructuring the debt, as well as without introducing unrealistic big pressure into economic policy.  click here

 
Regardless of the debt and the burden of its servicing, over the past decade, the RA Government has managed to service the public debt of the RA on time and in full. However, this circumstance is not enough for full-fledged judgments about stability. To ensure stability, it is necessary to identify all possible risks and sources of vulnerability, so that the behavior of debt in the event of these risks becomes figurative.
The analysis of public debt stability was carried out on the basis of the MAC DSA (Debt sustainability analysis for market-access countries) methodology of two reputable financial structures widely used in international practice -the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
As a result of the analysis, it was revealed that:

  1. Although the debt of the RA Government is manageable, it is nevertheless sensitive to economic growth and exchange rate shocks.
  2. Sources of vulnerability for government debt are also high risk for non-residents – the share of debt and the share of debt in foreign currency, as well as the requirement for external financing of the economy.
  3. In order to maintain the risks of government debt at a low level and reduce financing risks, it is necessary to continue reducing the debt burden in accordance with fiscal rules, the policy of improving the weight of domestic debt and take steps to maintain financial stability, further deepen and develop the market.

KEYWORDS: Public debt, public debt stability, public debt stability assessment, MAC DSA model, deterministic, stochastic and alternative approaches, basic and alternative scenarios, stress tests.

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Education [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
 13 Manuscript Title : Design Thinking Approach in Teaching Physics.
Author’s Name : Nerrie E. Malaluan1  , Joy N. Landicho2
Article Type : Original Research Article
Country from : PHILIPPINES
Date of Publication:  20-01-2022
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 67.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-I/Page – 01-09 [NOVEMBER-2021 EDITION ]
Article Code : EDU-V67-I1-C1-NOV-2021
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download PDF : Full article (Pdf)
Doi No : 10.5281/zenodo.5873526

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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of design thinking approach in teaching physics to Grade 8 students of Padre Vicente Garcia Memorial Academy, Inc. during the school year 2018-2019. It determined the students’ levels of performance in the pre-test and post-test in the experimental and control groups after which test results were compared.  click here

 The development of students’ skills along the phases of design thinking such as empathizing, ideating, prototyping, and testing was likewise part of the study. Moreover, the level of students’ understanding and appreciation of the approach in learning physics concepts was determined. Research output as based from the findings was an instructional guide utilizing design thinking approach to enhance students’ understanding about physics concepts. The findings revealed that levels of students’ performance in the pre-test were comparable but differed in the post-test indicating that design thinking approach positively affected the students’ performance. Generally, there was strong concurrence that the phases of design thinking approach developed varied skills among students. In addition, design thinking as an approach in learning physics was well-understood and appreciated. From the findings, an instructional guide utilizing design thinking approach integrating its phases was developed to serve as a tool in conducting interactive classes in physics that will engage students in design challenges. It was recommended that the proposed instructional guide be used to enhance the teaching of physics concepts to Grade 8 students. Also, educators may explore innovative strategies that would cater to the needs of 21st century learners.  

KEYWORDS: academic performance, design thinking approach, experimental, innovation, physics learning. 

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Medical Science [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
14 Manuscript Title : The Health Belief Model (HBM) implementation to flood preparedness.
Author’s Name : Nur Laily,Anggun Wulandari2 , Lia Anggraini,Farid Ilham Muddin4
Article Type : Original Research Article
Country from : INDONESIA
Date of Publication:  20-12-2021
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 66.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-I/Page – 01-06 [OCTOBER-2021 EDITION ]
Article Code : MDS-V66-I1-C1-OCT-2021
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download PDF : Full article (Pdf)
Doi No : 10.5281/zenodo.5791630

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ABSTRACT: One of the natural disasters that has a major impact to health is a flood. Community preparedness is part of disaster risk reduction. Previous research has found that there is a widely developed belief in society about disasters, namely, first, that disasters are unavoidable and thus nothing to worry about. Second, the health sector will manage risk, and disaster risk is not a problem. click here

 This leads to an underestimation of disaster preparedness. So that readiness is minimum and prevention is inadequate. The study of beliefs about flood disaster risk, especially on health and flood disaster preparedness in the community in Banjar Regency, South Kalimantan is important. This study aims to analyze the application of the Health Belief Model (HBM) in flood disaster preparedness in the community in Banjar Regency, South Kalimantan Province. This research is analytic, with approach cross sectional. The population in this study is the community in the Hulu Sungai Tengah district. The number of samples taken in the study were 81 people. The instrument that will be used in this research is a questionnaire in the form of a google form. The study was conducted in Hulu Sungai Tengah Regency in June-July 2021. Data analysis used chi-square with a 95% confidence degree. The results showed that the p-values ​​of perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy for flood preparedness were 0.235; 0.575; 0.977; 0.249 and 0.976. This means that there is no significant relationship between perceptions of vulnerability, severity, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy with flood preparedness.

KEYWORDS: Health belief model, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, disaster preparedness.

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Medical Science [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
15 Manuscript Title : The role of young adults on preparedness and behavioral responses on flood disaster risk in the urban-rural area of South Kalimantan Province.
Author’s Name : Vina Yulia Anhar, Ihya Hazairin Noor, Farid Ilham Muddin, Muhammad AzmiyannoorZulfa Emelda
Article Type : Original Research Article
Country from : INDONESIA
Date of Publication:  20-11-2021
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 66.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-II/Page – 07-13 [OCTOBER-2021 EDITION ]
Article Code : MDS-V66-I1-C2-OCT-2021
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download PDF : Full article (Pdf)
Doi No : 10.5281/zenodo.5791644

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ABSTRACTThe worst flood disaster in South Kalimantan Province happened in the early 2021. 10 out of 13 districts/cities are affected by the flood. Therefore, it is needed to conduct a study that resulting in data as an evidence base in designing the program of community empowerment in the phase of disaster preparedness. click here

 In the research, a study regarding young adults role in preparedness and behavioral responses on flood disaster risk in the urban-rural area of South Kalimantan Province was proposed, especially in the young adults. Young adults play an important role in the understanding of context and sensitive to change, information and technology, which are predicted to be capable of understanding flood disaster risk that are exist in where they live, which affecting in the growth of preparedness effort. The research aimed to analyze the variables of preparedness and behavioral responses on flood disaster risk on young adults in the urban-rural area. The researched variables: area characteristics (urban-rural), threat assessment, disaster preparedness, evacuation and rescue management, and disaster information exposure. The data will be analyzed by chi square or fisher, to view the significance of statistical calculations between the 2 variables, CI limit 0,05 (95%) was used. The research samples are 564 people of 10 districts/cities in South Kalimantan Province. The data collection is done online by using google form questionnaire. The research result shows that the p values in each the variable of threat assessment, disaster preparedness, evacuation and rescue management and disaster information exposure are 0,717; 0,755; 0,001 and 0,037, respectively, therefore, it can be concluded that there is no correlation between threat assessment and disaster preparedness with the respondents’ area characteristics, also, there are correlations between evacuation and rescue management, and disaster information exposure with the respondents’ area characteristics.

 KEYWORDS: Flood, preparedness, behavior, young adult, urban rural.

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Education [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
16 Manuscript Title : Shared finance based on block-chain: Benefits and risks
Author’s Name : Gang Chen1* & Yede Huang2
Article Type : Original Research Article
Country from : CHINA
Date of Publication:  24-10-2021
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 64.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-I/Page – 01-05 [AUGUST-2021 EDITION ]
Article Code : EDU-V64-I1-C1-AUG-2021
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download PDF : Full article (Pdf)
Doi No : 10.6084/m9.figshare.16863070

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ABSTRACTThe establishment and operation of the shared finance center, the main application of block-chain technology in finance, has brought great convenience to the finance sector. Various enterprises in the group can share financial information in real time through the shared finance center, and the function of finance for daily business support and strategic decision-making is increasingly strengthened. click here

 This paper shows that the characteristics and advantages of distributed ledgers, such as decentralization, de-trusting and irreversible words, that block-chain has can fit the inherent requirements of shared finance, and these characteristics can also ensure the reliability of financial information sources, improve financial management efficiency and enterprise production quality, and reduce financial and production investment costs. In addition, this paper discusses some risks of block-chain in financial applications and how to balance the benefits and risks.
KEYWORDS:  Block-chain, shared finance, financial management, business operation.

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Business Management [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
17 Manuscript Title : Value at risk (VAR)-Non-parametric methodologies : An approach to the study and application
Author’s Name : Adalmiro Álvaro Malheiro de Castro Andrade Pereira*Ângela Daniela da Silva Vaz Eduardo Manuel Lopes de Sá e Silva 3
Article Type : Original Research Article
Country from : PORTUGAL
Date of Publication:  20-10-2021
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 63.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-I/Page – 01-11 [JULY-2021 EDITION ]
Article Code : BM-V63-I1-C1-JULY-2021
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download PDF : Full article (Pdf)
Doi No : 10.6084/m9.figshare.16821949

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ABSTRACTVAR (Value at Risk), is the maximum probable loss of a portfolio for a given level of confidence, within a specified time horizon. In Instruction No. 4/2008, Banco de Portugal defines Value-at-risk to be “the maximum expected loss that is not exceeded with a specific probability (confidence level) and for a certain period of time (detention period) “.

There are several methodologies for estimating VAR, but they are divided into two large groups: non-parametric (Historical simulations and Monte Carlo simulations) and parametric, based on variance and covariancy.  click here

 
We will only look at non-parametric methodologies:

  • Historical Simulations that are based on the assumption that the future change in the prices of the relevant assets in the portfolio, is distributed in the same way as in the past;
  • Monte Carlo simulations whose difference to historical simulations lies in the way of obtaining the simulated scenarios, which constitute a sample generated in a (pseudo) random way taking into account a given distribution.

KEYWORDS:  VAR; historical simulations; Monte Carlo simulations, finance portfolio. JEL: classification G32

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Educational Psychology [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
18 Manuscript Title : Flow academic students in junior high school in flood prone areas: The role of adjustment, adversity intelligence and task commitment.
Author’s Name : Marina Dwi Mayangsari*1,Triana Swastikasari2 Nurzalina Fathiah3 Fataya Ramadhaniah Safitri4 Muhammad Lutfi5
Article Type : Original Research Article
Country from : INDONESIA
Date of Publication:  20-09-2021
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 62.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-I/Page – 01-08 [JUNE-2021 EDITION ]
Article Code : EPSY-V62-I1-C1-JUNE-2021
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download PDF : Full article (Pdf)
Doi No : 10.6084/m9.figshare.16635829———————————————————————————————————————————–ABSTRACTFlow conditions are one of the important factors in the learning process because students who are in a state of academic flow will feel comfortable, focused , and able to enjoy learning activities so as to foster self-motivation. Self adjustment, adversity intelligence and task commitment are estimated to play a role in the academic flow of students attending school in flood-prone areas because the difficult situations faced by students require them to have these three variables in order to achieve flow conditions. click here
 The purpose of this study was to determine the role of self-adjustment, adversity intelligence and task commitment to academic flow. Research respondents were students of SMP Salafiyah Islamic Boarding School “Syekh Muhammad Arsyad Albanjary” grades 7, 8 and 9 totaling 175 people with simple random sampling technique. This study uses four measuring tools, namely the academic flow scale, self-adjustment scale, adversity intelligence scale and task commitment scale. Data analysis using multiple linear regression proves that there is a role for adjustment, adversity intelligence and task commitment to academic flow (F(3, 171)=2.139 p<0.05). Adjustment, adversity intelligence and task commitment also partially contributed significantly to academic flow (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that the academic flow of students in flood-prone areas can be influenced by their adjustment conditions, adversity intelligence, and task commitment.  KEYWORDS:  Bornu basin, Basement Complex, provenance, Pan African, U-Pb age.

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Social Science [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
 19 Manuscript Title : Terrorism in Northern Nigeria: An Appraisal of Its Impact on the Educational System
Author’s Name : 1Gbenemene Kpae* , 2Agoola S.Tajudeen
Article Type : ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE 
Country from : NIGERIA
Date of Publication:  25-08-2021
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 61.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-II/Page – 03-09 [MAY-2021 EDITION ]
Article Code : SS-V61-I1-C2-MAY-2021
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download PDF : Full article (Pdf)
Doi No : 10.6084/m9.figshare.15456354
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ABSTRACT: The work examined terrorism and its impact on Education in Northern Nigeria. This study investigated how the rate of kidnapping and killing of school students and teachers in the Northern Nigeria has negatively affected the educational system. It also examined the level of attack on educational facilities in the North and how the Boko Haram sect has used schools as bases of its operation.  click here
 Lastly, the study investigated the responses of the Nigerian government to protect school children, teachers and educational facilities from attack. The theoretical framework adopted for this study is the general systems theory. The study is descriptive in nature. It dwells primarily on secondary sources of data, namely, textbooks, journal articles, newspaper publications and the internet. The technique of analysis adopted is content analysis. The study found that Boko Haram has killed and kidnapped thousands of school children and teachers. The study also found that the sect has destroyed several educational facilities.  The study further found that both Boko Haram and government forces have used several schools as their base of operation. All these have disrupted learning in the North. From the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made; the government should endeavor to find out the root cause of Boko Haram insurgency and why youths are being recruited easily to the terror group. Adequate security be made available to protect students and schools in the North so that children can continue their schools uninterrupted. Since poverty has been the number one harbinger of Boko Haram insurgency, efforts must be made to reduce the rate of poverty in the region. The Nigerian government must embark on effective poverty alleviation and human capital development programs for youth who are most vulnerable to recruitment and radicalization.KEYWORDS: Terrorism, kidnapping, education, Northern Nigeria, ransom..

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Education [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
20 Manuscript Title : Provenance of the cretaceous to tertiary sequences in the Bornu Basin, Nigeria.
Author’s Name : Peter S. Ola ,John A. Adekoya2
Article Type : ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE 
Country from : NIGERIA
Date of Publication:  10-07-2021
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 59.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-I/Page – 01-0610 [MARCH-2021 EDITION ]
Article Code : AGEO-V59-I1-C1-MAR-2021
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download PDF : Full article (Pdf)
Doi No : 10.5281/zenedo.5089882
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ABSTRACTGeochronological ages derived from zircon grains (U – Pb age dating) from Basement Complex rocks surrounding the Bornu Basin, Nigeria and ditch cutting samples from six wells (Gaibu – 1,Kasade – 1, Kinasar – 1, Kutchali – 1, Mbeji – 1, Ngor – 1) located in different parts of the basin were compared in this study for provenance evaluation. Based on field work carried out, three main suites of crystalline rocks in and around the Bornu Basin sample dare: migmatite–gneiss complex, Older Granites (Pan African granites), and Tertiary Basalts.  click here
 The gross geochronological data from the Basement Complex rocks show the predominance of Pan African age varying from about 500-600 Ma. Few of the basement samples yielded higher ages, particularly those from Goza 2 and Kano road, which are characterized by U-Pb age ranging from more than 1500 to 2500 Ma. The U-Pb age of 13 ditch cutting samples taken from different stratigraphic units of different ages in six selected wells in the basin yielded ages that are remarkably similar except in two cases. Essentially, a mean age of about 600Ma was obtained for the samples. The geochronological data of the sediments, in spite of being deposited at different times in the Cretaceous and Tertiary, correlate neatly with those of the Basement Complex rocks surrounding the basin. This indicates that the bulk of the sediments in the Bornu Basin were derived from its surrounding Basement Complex rocks.KEYWORDS:  Bornu basin, Basement Complex, provenance, Pan African, U-Pb age.

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Medical Science [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
21 Manuscript Title : Adolescents Reproductive Health: Aspects of free sex prevention knowledge and behavior
Author’s Name : Muhammad Azmiyannoor1Zaliha2Fatma Liliansi Nora3Nurul Salsabila Yasmina4  Andini Octaviana Putri5  Vina Yulia Anhar Fauzie Rahman Anggun Wulandari8
Article Type : ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE 
Country from : INDONESIA
Date of Publication:  10-07-2021
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 59.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-II/Page – 11-16 [MARCH-2021 EDITION ]
Article Code : MDS-V59-I1-C2-MAR-2021
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download PDF : Full article (Pdf)
Doi No : 10.5281/zenedo.5089898
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ABSTRACTFree sex behavior among adolescents continues to increase, so that it needs special attention from all circles. Cases of unwanted pregnancy, abortion, and premarital sexually transmitted diseases are increasingly occurring. Knowledge and behavior about adolescent sexuality are the main factors for free sex behavior in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between aspects of reproductive health knowledge and free sex behavior in adolescents. click here
 The research method is analytic observational with a cross-sectional design. The study was conducted on adolescents with vulnerable ages 10-24 years, amounting to 81 people in Hulu Sungai Regency with proportional simple random sampling. Univariate analysis using frequency distribution tables and bivariate using the chi square test with Cl 95% and alpha 0.05 to determine the relationship between knowledge of reproductive health and adolescent sexual behavior. The results showed p-value = 0.30> 0.05 which indicated that there was no relationship between knowledge of reproductive health and free sex behavior among adolescents in North Hulu Sungai Regency.KEYWORDS : Reproductive Health, Adolescents, Free Sex.

CATEGORY : Research Topic on Education [ Original Research Article ]

SL.No. Detailed information of the published article
22 Manuscript Title : Tolerance Level Difference between State School Students and Religious-Based School Students on Peatlands
Author’s Name : Rika Vira Zwagery 1Marina Dwi Mayangsari 2Rendy Alfianoor Achmad Nor Mai Leza4
Article Type : ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE 
Country from : INDONESIA
Date of Publication:  10-07-2021
Journal Name : Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries [ ISSN : 2456-1045 ]
Article Identification : Vol. 59.0/Issue
-I/Chapter-III/Page – 17-21 [MARCH-2021 EDITION ]
Article Code : EDU-V59-I1-C3-MAR-2021
Status : Officially published
Publisher : International Journal Foundation  
Download PDF : Full article (Pdf)
Doi No : 10.5281/zenedo.5089968
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ABSTRACTThe crisis of tolerance in Indonesia is increasing significantly; many frictions between religious communities happened and even made a fight between them. Because of it, harmony and tolerance between religious communities are needed to avoid disunity. The condition of tolerance among religious people in each region is different; the differences level of tolerance in a person can be influenced by their regional origin and education.click here
 The purpose of this study was to determine differences in tolerance of students with different educational backgrounds, namely students in public schools and students in faith-based schools. The study was conducted in state-based (SMP) and religion-based (MTS) junior high schools in South Kalimantan Peatlands. Subjects numbered 244 people, with 122 junior high students and 122 religion-based junior high school students. This research is a comparative descriptive study comparing tolerance between students in public schools with students in religious base schools. Based on the results of the independent sample t-test obtained p = 0.006 (p <0.05), there is a difference in religious tolerance between students attending public schools and students attending religious-based schools. Based on these results, it is known that junior high school students have a higher tolerance level than religious-based schools students because junior high schools or state schools are heterogeneous so that it is easier to accept differences, whereas religious-based schools are homogeneous more challenging to accept differences because they will assume that all people are the same so they might make conflicts occur and therefore religious tolerance is needed between one another. Besides education, other factors that influence tolerance are found, namely, gender. It is known that women have a higher tolerance attitude than men.KEYWORDS : Tolerance, Religion-based school, Students

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